PKD Clinic

Polycystic Kidney Disease& Kidney Cysts

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a genetic condition characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys.

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PKD Overview

PKD Overview

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a genetic condition characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys. These cysts may slowly replace much of the mass of the kidneys, leading to Kidney Failure.

It is common for our kidneys to develop small, fluid-filled cysts as we age, and we call these cysts simple kidney cysts. They are almost benign. However, PKD is a genetic disease that causes many cysts to grow in the kidneys, these cysts grow out of control and can overrun the kidneys.

PKD is one of the most common inherited disorders caused by mutations in a single gene. PKD is the fourth leading cause of Kidney Failure and affects about 500,000 people in the United States. The autosomal dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) is much more common than the autosomal recessive PKD. The former affects 1 in every 400 to 1,000 people, while the latter is estimated to occur in 1 in every 20,000 to 40,000 people. Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) is found equally in men and women of all races. Because PKD is a genetic disease, a person is more at risk if one of his parents has the disease.

PKD can cause cysts in the liver and problems in other organs, such as the heart and blood vessels in brain. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, about 50% of people with ADPKD progress to Kidney Failure.

In many countries, there is no cure for PKD yet, patients can only take some steps to help slow the kidney damage:

● Eat a diet low in salt
● Avoid tobacco
● Keep a healthy blood pressure
● Control diabetes if having it
● Work with a kidney specialist to manage your Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD)

PKD Diagnosis

PKD Diagnosis

When making a Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) diagnosis, your doctor will ask a number of questions related to your medical history. These questions may have to do with medications you are currently taking, whether you have a family history of any conditions (including PKD) and other medical conditions you may have. Also your doctor will also perform a physical exam and order certain tests, including ultrasound, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scan (computerized tomography scan), and genetic testing.

How is autosomal dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) diagnosed?

Diagnosis of ADPKD may include the use of imaging techniques to detect cysts on the kidney and other organs, and a review of the family history of ADPKD into PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3.

How is autosomal recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD) diagnosed?

Ultrasound imaging of the fetus or newborn baby reveals cysts in the kidneys, but does not distinguish between the cysts of autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant PKD. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys of relatives can be helpful.

How about the diagnosis of acquired cystic kidney disease?

Patients with acquired cystic kidney disease usually seek help when they notice blood in their urine. The cysts bleed into the urinary system, which discolors urine. An acquired cystic kidney disease diagnosis is confirmed by using CT scan, ultrasound, or MRI of the kidneys.

PKD Symptoms

Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) Symptoms

A person with Polycystic Kidney Disease will experience symptoms as a result of the damage caused by cysts that develop in the kidneys. The symptoms of Polycystic Kidney Disease will vary based on the type of the condition a person has. There are three major types of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD): autosomal dominant PKD (inherited), autosomal recessive PKD (inherited) and acquired cystic kidney disease (non-inherited). Now we will see the symptoms of these three kinds of PKD respectively.

The symptoms of autosomal dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease(ADPKD)

Symptoms usually develop between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can begin as early as childhood, and may include:

Headaches
● Urinary tract infections
● Pain in the back and the sides
High blood pressure
● Kidney stone
Blood in urine
● Liver and pancreatic cysts
● Abnormal heart valves
● Aneurysms in the brain
● Diverticulosis

The symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD

The symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD can begin before birth. So it is often called infantile PKD. The symptoms your child may experience include:

● High blood pressure
● Frequent urination
● Low blood cell counts
● Urinary tract infections
● Delayed development
● Small stature
● Back pain
● Hemorrhoids
● Varicose veins
● Less than average height and weight

The symptoms of acquired cystic kidney disease

Patients with acquired cystic kidney disease usually seek help because they notice blood in urine. Other symptoms of acquired cystic kidney disease may include:

● Urinary tract infections
● Back pain or pain on the sides
● A decrease in urination
● Feeling very tried

The symptoms mentioned above are not always sure symptoms of PKD. Other medical conditions can also cause a number of these symptoms. If you or your child is experiencing any of these possible symptoms of PKD, see your doctor so that the problem can be diagnosed and treated.

PKD Treatment

Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) Treatment

Because there is no cure for Polycystic Kidney Disease, common treatment options for the disease focus on treating its symptoms and complications. The following information is about these common treatments for PKD and another new treatment.

Medicines for pain, headache and other symptoms

Pain is a common symptom of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD), when it happens, a doctor will first suggest medicines such as aspirin or Tylenol. Headaches can be caused by aneurysms in the brain or high blood pressure. If patients have severe or recurring headaches, they should see a doctor. Antibiotics are usually used to treat urinary tract infections. Lifestyle changes and various medicines can lower high blood pressure.

Dialysis and kidney transplant

If PKD can not be controlled well, it can develop into Renal Failure. Because kidneys are essential for life, people with Renal Failure must seek one of two options for replacing kidney functions: dialysis or kidney transplant. Compared with dialysis, kidney transplant has become a common and successful procedure. Dialysis can only replace a part of functions of kidneys and it can not treat Renal Failure.

Surgery and Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy for shrinking cysts

Surgery is used to shrink cyst and also relieve pain in the back and sides. However, surgery provides only temporary relief and usually does not slow the disease's progression toward Renal Failure.

As a matter of fact, for Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) patients, the decline in kidney function is caused by the enlargement of cysts, so shrinking the cysts is the key. However, there are no western medicines can do this, now the Chinese medicine has been used in treating PKD in clinical. In order to avoid the damage to gastrointestinal tract and increase the efficiency of medicines, a therapy applied externally called Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy has been created. PKD patients just need to lie on the bed to take this treatment, the active materials of Chinese herbal medicines can directly get to the kidney area with the help of osmosis device. It just likes a massage, very comfortable. How does Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy shrink cysts? It does this through these functions: promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, increasing the permeability of cyst wall, decreasing the ability of secreting cyst fluid of lining cells and changing the internal and external pressure difference of cyst wall. This treatment can not only shrink the cysts safely and efficiently also provide the nutrition for damaged kidneys.

PKD Prognosis

Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) Prognosis

There is no known cure for Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD). Those affected with infantile PKD generally die before the age of two. For adults PKD patients, untreated disease can be rapidly fatal or continue to progress slowly, even after symptoms of Kidney Failure occur. About half of adults patients with PKD develop Kidney Failure. This condition usually leads to death within four years of diagnosis if patient does not undergo dialysis or receives a kidney transplant.

Though medical treatment can relieve symptoms of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) temporarily, the expanding cysts continue to increase pressure on the kidneys. Kidney Failure and too much wastes and toxins generally cause death about 10 years after symptoms first appear.

Individual has different situation. The prognosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) has a close relationship with the complications. The prognosis is poor when there are some complications and Uremia. Though some PKD patients have renal insufficiency, the disease will develop slow and the prognosis of PKD will be relatively good, if there are no complications. So treating the complications of PKD in clinical is very important for the prognosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD). Generally speaking, when symptoms of PKD happen, and PKD patients don't take neither dialysis nor kidney transplant, then patients can live for about 10 years, the mean age at death is about 50. The main reasons causing death include Kidney Failure, heart failure, intracranial hemorrhage and pulmonary infection and so on.

For PKD patients, the poor kidney function is caused by the enlargement of cysts. So the key point is to shrink these cysts. However, if PKD patients can be treated by a treatment which helps them shrink the cysts safely and efficiently and repair kidney damage, there is no doubt that the prognosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease(PKD) will be good. Of course, kidney transplant also is an efficient treatment which can help PKD patients.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

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